7 Steps For Gaining Instructional Control in Applied Behavior Analysis

7 Steps For Gaining Instructional Control in Applied Behavior Analysis
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    hi my name is Lauren Haley and I'm a Board Certified Behavior Analyst with
    Brett DiNovi and Associates in today's video we're going to discuss the seven
    steps for earning instructional control the purpose of this video is to briefly
    review each step to inform programming for individuals receiving behavior
    analytic services the information provided in this video can be found in
    the seven steps for earning instructional control by Robert Schramm with
    Megan Miller the content in this video relate to the bacb fourth addition task
    list items d1 the use of positive reinforcement d 18 the use of extinction
    and E 1 which is the use of interventions based on manipulations of
    antecedents such as motivating operations and discriminative stimuli
    TIF again let's review one instructional control is as defined by Robert SRAM
    instructional control is the likelihood that an instruction will lead to a
    desired response that is if a therapists teacher parent or other adult is said to
    have good instructional control with a learner that learner will be likely to
    comply with any instruction that adult gives instructional control is measured
    by recording independent responses to discriminated demands important factors
    to consider when assessing instructional control is the rate of skill acquisition
    and the level of independence they demonstrate when given a demands by an
    adult the desire for increased instructional control is not one that is
    specific to the work being done with children diagnosed with autism spectrum
    disorder teachers therapeutic service providers parents and others can all
    benefit from the implementation of a systematic approach to establishing
    instructional control with the children in their lives when implemented with
    fidelity it is posited that the seven steps for earning instructional control
    can be used as an alternative to the practice of escape extinction within the
    field of applied behavior analysis to review escaped extinction is defined by
    Cooper Herron and Heward at the process by which behaviors that were maintained
    by negative reinforcement no longer result in the termination of the
    aversive stimulus that is omitting the target behavior does not enable the
    individual to escape the aversive situation as it previously did a side
    effect of any extinction procedure is the production of an extinction burst or
    the phenomenon in which the targeted behavior gets worse before it gets
    better in an extinction burst the behavior
    occurs at a higher frequency and with higher intensity that had previously
    been recorded it is also likely the variability and problem behavior will
    arise and the individual whose behavior has been placed on extinction will try
    other behaviors to achieve the same result
    some other problems associated with traditional escaped extinction include
    the potential to establish the learning environment as an aversive stimulus as
    well as a lack of willingness on the part of parents or teachers to implement
    the procedure consistently and with fidelity although there are yet to be
    comparative studies done to assess the efficacy of using the seven steps over
    traditional escaped extinction data collection on the use of the seven steps
    has made in an intervention worth exploring to avoid the aforementioned
    extinction burst as well as when more traditional methods of compliance
    training have failed or are not possible to implement now that we've covered the
    basics of escape extinction and instructional control let's review the
    seven steps themselves step 1 reinforcement control this step involves
    showing the learner that you are in control of all preferred items that they
    may want and that you will be the one who decides when and for how long they
    have access to those items in order to implement this step you must be able to
    consistently restrict access to reinforcement this means removing all
    reinforcing items from the environment and placing them someplace where the
    learner is not able to access them that can see it this might mean keeping the
    items in clear and or locked containers or on a shelf out of reach step 2
    pairing with reinforcement as defined by SRAM pairing is a behavior principle
    that states when two items or activities are consistently experienced together
    the perceived value of one will influence the perceived value of the
    other step two means showing the learner that your fun make each interaction
    enjoyable the goal of pairing is to establish yourself as a reinforcer along
    with the learners current reinforcer repertoire SRAM recommends pairing
    approximately 75 percent of interactions with your learner for example if it
    takes your learner 15 seconds to complete three demands
    you should then spend the next 45 seconds providing reinforcement while
    pairing it is also important that you speak in declarative sentences rather
    than inadvertently giving demands this means avoiding
    a man such as look at this or your turn and saying things that are declarative
    in nature such as wow this is fun or you're good at that a key part of the
    pairing process means that anytime the learner is engaged in a reinforcing
    activity you have to be part of it during teaching time the learner may not
    be permitted to play with the reinforcing items in your absence if
    they attempt to leave the instructional area or insist on your absence you
    should remove access to the item as in step one this will teach your learner
    that they can either not play with their preferred items or they can play with it
    in the teaching area with you step 3 always be consistent and follow through
    this means saying what you mean in doing what you say you're going to do the main
    element of this stuff is that if you give an instruction to a learner do not
    allow access to reinforcement until he or she complies with the demand when
    providing an instruction or discriminative stimulus to the learner
    it is important to word it as a demand rather than a question you may prompt
    the completion when appropriate during this step however if the learner refuses
    you should stop prompting to avoid utilizing escaped extinction we want our
    learners to comply because they want to learn
    not because we're forcing them if your learner is not complying ignore
    inappropriate behaviors and instead engage yourself with the preferred
    activity when your learner shows interests you can then restate your
    demand and let them know that the reinforcing activity will be available
    after they are done complying step 4 focus on positive rather than negative
    reinforcement this involves demonstrating to your learner the
    following your directions is the best way to get what he or she wants as
    opposed to it being a way to escape from the instructional setting it's important
    to initially provide the child with easy and fun demands that way they can access
    reinforcement frequently this may include demands such as sit down and
    play with your toy for directions to complete master learning items this step
    also involves catching your learner being good if they are sitting quietly
    following expectations provide surprise access to reinforcement paired with
    behavior specific positive praise step 5 continuous reinforcement - expanding
    ratio of reinforcement essentially this step can be described as providing
    reinforcement every time the appropriate behavior occurs during the acquisition
    phase of gaining compliance and fading to intermittent reinforcement during the
    maintenance phase for example if you're doing a task where your learner has to
    sit for an extended period of time you may start by reinforcing every 30
    seconds of seated behavior as the learner stamina for sitting improves you
    may systematically increase the time between periods of reinforcement step 6
    prioritize yourself and your learner Schramm defines us as being able to
    demonstrate that you know the child's priorities as well as you know your own
    this involves understanding where different preferred items fall in
    relation to one another as reinforcers and utilizing differential reinforcement
    to fade prompts this step also involved you knowing what you're teaching
    priorities are and providing reinforcement based on that for example
    if the goal of your program is to increase articulation for a learner who
    already has generalized Mane's you may choose not to provide reinforcement to a
    learner requesting a cuckoo as opposed to a cookie however if you're teaching
    an early learner how demand and cuckoo is the best response you've gotten so
    far you will likely reinforce that response by giving the learner a cookie
    to develop a man-thing repertoire step 7 handling negative behavior with
    extinction according to SRAM this step involves teaching the learner that
    ignoring your instructions or omitting an inappropriate behavior will not
    result in access to reinforcement if you're already engaging in a preferred
    activity with your learner immediately remove the reinforcing items as well as
    your attention you may engage yourself with the fun activity or with other
    students if they are available at this time
    block the learners access to other forms of reinforcement when the learner stops
    engaging in the problem behavior or complies with your demand you may then
    reintroduce your reinforcement and provide attention to that learner the
    distinction between this and escaped extinction is that while you are
    withholding opportunities for reinforcement you are not simultaneously
    prompting compliance through response blocking or the repetition of the demand
    thank you for watching this review of the seven steps of earning instructional
    control by Robert REM more comprehensive information can be found in the book of
    the same name as reference throughout this video
    please leave your questions or your own experience with these steps in the
    comment section below you
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