PBS NewsHour full episode August 07, 2018

PBS NewsHour full episode August 07, 2018
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    NICK SCHIFRIN: Good evening.
    I'm Nick Schifrin.
    Judy Woodruff is on vacation.
    On the "NewsHour" tonight: engulfed in flames.
    The largest fire in California's history rages on, and more than 14,000 firefighters are
    trying to contain it.
    Then: following the money.
    Rick Gates testifies how former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort avoided taxes and sought
    to pay back a banker with a top job in the administration.
    And using red flags to prevent violence: how police and families are fighting for laws
    to treat mental illness before it's too late.
    MARA ELLIOTT, San Diego City Attorney: If there are sufficient warning signs, we can
    now get a gun violence restraining order.
    We don't have to wait for another crime to occur.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: All that and more on tonight's "PBS NewsHour."
    (BREAK)
    NICK SCHIFRIN: Wildfires up and down California are still burning out of control this evening,
    with no relief coming anytime soon.
    Wary crews are fighting the heat, the wind and the fires, ranging from a huge combination
    of blazes in the north to a new one spreading in the south.
    Smoke from the Holy Fire rose with the morning sun, and flames tore through dry brush of
    the Cleveland National Forest.
    The fire outside Los Angeles started late yesterday, and quickly tripled in size.
    By this morning, it had already scorched 4,000 acres.
    This area hasn't burned in nearly four decades.
    Many residents were caught off-guard and didn't heed the original evacuation order.
    TILSON SHUMATE, California: It's an incredible sensation to be in this and to be faced with
    life and death.
    Like, we think we're ready to die, but are we?
    I don't know, man.
    I don't want to go like this.
    Get us out of here.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: In California and many Western states, fire season isn't new, but the intensity
    and scope of the devastation are.
    Hotter weather attributed to climate change drives more severe conditions that authorities
    say residents cannot ignore.
    MIKE MOHLER, Cal Fire: It can't be white noise anymore, because this not going to change.
    It's here and we're going to have to deal with it.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: Deputy director of Cal Fire, Michael Mohler, says California's wildfires
    are burning faster, longer and more unpredictably.
    August is only the middle of the fire season, and Mohler warns he expects the worst is yet
    to come.
    MIKE MOHLER: With the conditions we're seeing right now, the weather patterns that are lining
    up, working with our partners from the National Weather Service, we don't see this changing
    anytime soon.
    Our firefighters, our enforcement, first-responders are preparing for -- really for this to continue.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: Across the state, 17 major wildfires are burning, the most devastating
    in the north.
    Overnight, the Mendocino Complex fire grew into the largest in state history, breaking
    a record set just eight months ago.
    It's incinerated more than 290,000 acres.
    Fire officials say they're focused on protecting some 11,000 threatened homes.
    Some have already been lost.
    MAN: What can you say?
    It makes you sick to your stomach.
    Everything they work for all their life gone a heartbeat.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: Officials admit the expanding fire season is taking a heavy toll on their
    resources.
    More than 14,000 firefighters are working in California, and the fire season is more
    than two months longer than it used to be.
    But they vow to keep fighting.
    MIKE MOHLER: One of the things we say in the fire service is, not only take care of yourself,
    but you need to take care of your fellow partner and personnel and keep an eye on them.
    You have to have that downtime.
    But I can tell you that all first-responders are in it for the long haul.
    It's what we do.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: And there's no end in sight.
    Firefighters are facing another record-breaking fire burning through Yosemite National Park.
    Officials today said the park will remain closed indefinitely.
    In the day's other news: Rescuers in Indonesia pulled another survivor from the ruins left
    by Sunday's powerful earthquake.
    The death toll rose to at least 105, as crews combed through debris on Lombok Island.
    Thousands of villagers are growing desperate for aid.
    MAN (through translator): Our tent accommodates six families.
    It's very hot during the day and we are drenched with sweat.
    But the night is chilling.
    We need blankets, and the children also need some cold and cough medicine and milk.
    We also have two seniors here who have difficulty moving around and need help.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: The aid organization Oxfam estimates more than 20,000 people are in need
    of shelter.
    Thousands more are camping in the open air.
    President Trump has fired off a new warning about Iran targeted at countries that might
    violate newly reinstated U.S. sanctions.
    In a tweet today, he wrote: "Anyone doing business with Iran will not be doing business
    with the United States."
    The warning came as German automaker Daimler A.G. announced it would halt all business
    in Iran.
    In Japan, a prestigious medical school admitted today that it altered admissions scores for
    years in order to limit the number of female students.
    An internal investigation found that officials at Tokyo Medical University believed many
    women would later abandon medicine to become mothers.
    The school's head apologized.
    TETSUO YUKIOKA, Tokyo Medical University (through translator): Society is changing rapidly and
    we need to respond to that.
    Any organization that fails to utilize women will grow weak and will fail to contribute
    to society.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: The education minister says admissions procedures at all medical schools
    will now be reviewed.
    Back in this country, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is out with a clearer
    picture of dangers posed by the Zika virus.
    It shows that one in seven babies born to mothers who were infected during pregnancy
    developed health problems ranging from birth defects to seizures.
    The researchers analyzed children born to infected women in Puerto Rico and other U.S.
    territories.
    The virus is spread by mosquitoes.
    Police in New Mexico said they found the body of a young boy at a compound near the Colorado
    border.
    That comes one day after they found 11 children 11 living in hunger and filth.
    Aerial video showed a trailer buried in the ground surrounded by walls of old tires and
    wooden pallets.
    Five adults have been charged with child abuse.
    The children range in age from 1 to 15.
    New York will become the first major American city to let jail inmates make phone calls
    for free.
    Currently, the calls run 50 cents for the first minute, and another nickel for each
    additional minute.
    New York's decision comes as prison rights groups are pushing to limit private companies
    from making money off prisoners.
    The new law takes effect in nine months.
    There's word there's word that electric car maker Tesla may go private.
    CEO Elon Musk tweeted today that he might buy back stock at $420 a share.
    He said it would help Tesla focus on the long-term, rather than quarterly profits.
    On the broader market, the Dow Jones industrial average gained 126 points to close near 25629.
    The Nasdaq rose 24 points, and the S&P 500 added eight.
    And former Nevada Governor and Senator and Ronald Reagan confidant Paul Laxalt died Monday.
    He became friends with the California governor in the 1960s.
    Later, he chaired the Reagan presidential campaigns and served as a liaison between
    the Reagan White House and Congress.
    Paul Laxalt was 96 years old.
    Still to come on the "NewsHour": the businesses partner of President Trump's chairman cross-examined
    in court; fears of a crackdown in Venezuela after an apparent assassination attempt using
    drones; mass shootings have sparked a debate over temporarily restricting some people's
    access to guns; and much more.
    The key witness in the trial of President Trump's former campaign chairman Paul Manafort
    took the stand again today and faced tough questions from Manafort's legal team.
    "NewsHour"'s William Brangham was in court today and has that.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: That star witness was Rick Gates, a longtime associate of Paul Manafort's
    who also worked on the Trump campaign.
    Gates is now cooperating with special counsel Robert Mueller's team.
    And yesterday and today, he offered detailed testimony about Manafort's alleged financial
    crimes, which involved hiding foreign income and bank fraud.
    The defense today sought to portray Gates as an unreliable witness, highlighting how
    he too allegedly hid income, lied to prosecutors and even carried on a secret extramarital
    affair.
    I'm joined now by Seth B. Waxman.
    He's currently a criminal defense lawyer in private practice, but previously worked as
    a federal prosecutor at the U.S. attorney's office in Washington.
    Welcome to the "NewsHour."
    SETH B. WAXMAN, Former U.S. Solicitor General: Thank you.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: So, Rick Gates testified yesterday and again today, laying out really
    the arc of the prosecution's case, all these alleged financial crimes that Paul Manafort
    allegedly carried out, bank fraud, hiding income, trying to avoid paying taxes.
    Thus far, last week and this week, what do you make of the prosecution's case?
    SETH B. WAXMAN: Yes, I mean, it seems pretty solid at this point.
    You have several witnesses who have all said that this activity went on, from accountants
    and other experts in those sort of areas.
    Now you have the star witness, Mr. Gates, coming on, and kind of breathing life into
    the various documents and e-mails that we're seeing.
    And so you have to think, at this point, the prosecution feels pretty good about where
    they sit.
    And, of course, we're now into cross-examination of Rick Gates, where it's really the defense's
    opportunity to kind of set this case more in their favor.
    And it's really a critical time period for them.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Rick Gates, as was laid out in testimony yesterday and today, he admitted
    to prosecutors that he was part of Manafort's scheme, and said, I helped him do these things.
    Manafort was breaking the law, but so was I.
    And he became what we call a cooperating witness.
    That's a common strategy, right?
    SETH B. WAXMAN: It most certainly is.
    In most conspiracies, you're going to have someone on the inside of that conspiracy to
    tell the story.
    And, oftentimes, those are not the pope or Mother Teresa.
    You're going to have criminals, liars, cheaters, murderers, whatever the crime may be.
    So those people are going to have baggage.
    And that's what the prosecution does.
    They front all the bad stuff, so they don't hear about it, the jury does hear about it
    for the first time from the defense.
    And the whole case from the prosecution side is corroborating that star witness, to say,
    look, you don't have to just believe him for the words he says.
    You get to believe him because all of this other independent evidence corroborates and
    tells you what he says is the truth.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Given what you described as the strong case the prosecution seems to
    have -- and, to my non-legal mind, it does seem like they have got a good deal of documentary
    evidence about Manafort being involved in these alleged crimes -- what is your sense
    of why Paul Manafort didn't plead guilty?
    SETH B. WAXMAN: Yes, I mean, it's my opinion that he's kind of playing with house money
    right now, that he can take a shot at this trial, even if the evidence is overwhelming.
    If he should happen to win, he would go on to D.C. in the fall and fight that case.
    And if he would win...
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: That's a separate prosecution that's going on against Manafort.
    SETH B. WAXMAN: Correct.
    Correct.
    There's still yet another trial separate from this.
    And if he were to win that one, he's a free man.
    But on the other hand, if he were to lose one or either of those trials, it's my belief
    that he can still walk into Manafort's office, ask for a deal, they will give him that deal,
    because they need him that back to kind of be one of the top lieutenants in this potential
    conspiracy among the Russians and the Trump campaign to influence the 2016 election.
    So I think he's rolling the dice.
    If he wins, great.
    If he loses, he can still get that deal.
    It might not be as good, but he can still get a deal.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: So, as we said before, the defense got their first crack at Rick Gates,
    and they immediately tried to undercut him and to say, you're a liar, you're untrustworthy.
    They even made the revelation, which the prosecution had not let slip, about this extramarital
    affair.
    What is your sense of how the defense is doing thus far in chipping away at the star witness?
    SETH B. WAXMAN: Yes, I mean, these are pretty common attacks.
    They're going to go after his credibility, character assassination, anything to move
    the jury away from Rick Gates and closer to Paul Manafort and believing the presumption
    that he's presumed innocent.
    How much hay they're making out of that, it's kind of hard to say at this point.
    But the difficulty for the -- for the pro -- the defense, rather, in this case is the
    collaboration.
    They have got these other witnesses.
    I'm hearing that there are e-mails today that are from Paul Manafort to Rick Gates, or vice
    versa, where Paul Manafort is directing Rick Gates to do certain things.
    I mean, that is devastating evidence for -- against the defense.
    And it's those kinds of uncontroverted documents -- documents can't be cross-examined -- that
    the prosecution will be hammering all the way through closing arguments in this case.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Do you expect Paul Manafort to take the stand?
    If you were representing Paul Manafort, would you encourage him to do so?
    SETH B. WAXMAN: No.
    No, I don't think so.
    I mean, the risks of him taking the stand are really, really high.
    It's a rare case where a criminal defendant or person on trial, rather, will take the
    stand in his defense.
    I mean, I think the play here is to attack Rick Gates, make it seem like a he said/he
    said.
    And, of course, the government bears the burden of proof.
    And, again, it's going to -- the prosecution saying, look, wait a minute, Rick Gates is
    an important witness, but there's a lot more.
    There's corroboration.
    So I think that's the dynamic.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Remind us again.
    This case came out of Robert Mueller's investigation, which, as we all know, his primary charge
    being look at how Russia meddled in our election and whether or not the Trump campaign colluded
    in that at all.
    Remind us again how we got to a financial crimes prosecution.
    SETH B. WAXMAN: Sure.
    As a prosecutor is doing their investigation, they may learn background about individuals
    and dig into that background.
    So, of course, the Mueller team has uncovered all of what we're seeing now in Alexandria.
    Why that's relevant, I think it has two points.
    One, conspiracies don't just drop out of the sky in March 2016.
    There's a backstory there.
    Why did the Russians think that they could reach out to Manafort or others?
    It's because maybe they had 10 years of history of engaging in wrongful conduct.
    So that may be a gateway or entrance into the telling that story of how the conspiracy
    came about, assuming it occurred, in the election.
    The other part of this is, I think this trial has everything to do about Russia, not the
    facts for the trial itself, but that this is an effort by the prosecution to get Manafort
    to flip.
    And for the reasons we discussed before, I think that is still an option the table even
    after conviction.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Lastly, Judge T.S. Ellis, who has been presiding over this case, has
    been a really interesting figure to watch over the course of the days.
    He's inserted himself very aggressively.
    At one point, he -- he's banned the use of the term oligarch, because he argues it's
    a pejorative term that's just used to slime these Ukrainian businessmen.
    But there's also times where the judge has really seemed to try to poke at the prosecution
    and sort of take them to task, sometimes in front of the jury.
    Does that happen often?
    And what is the impact of that kind of interjection?
    SETH B. WAXMAN: Yes, I mean, it does happen, depending on the demeanor of the judge and
    how active or proactive they want to be.
    Judge Ellis is clearly very active.
    Some people think judges are referees, they should call balls and strikes and let the
    players play.
    I kind of fall in that camp.
    But I'm not a judge.
    The judges, the man in the black robe, or woman, it is her or his realm.
    And he gets to do or she gets to do what they want.
    Where it could become problematic for a prosecutor is if the judge is kind of launching personal
    attacks -- some of these seem to kind of get close to that -- or really just lashing out
    at the prosecutor.
    Jurors -- and, frankly, sometimes even myself -- don't really appreciate why the judge is
    so upset.
    And if that turns into a feeling in the jurors that the prosecution isn't playing fair, I
    mean, if a jury gets that feeling, that's where a case can go really south.
    So if the judge is kind of stepping into those grounds and kind of giving that impression,
    that's unfair, and there should be a balanced trial to both the government and the defense.
    So, you hope it doesn't kind of leave that impression that the government's playing unfair
    or under the table, because that's when it can be a real problem for the government.
    WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Thanks for analysis, Seth Waxman.
    SETH B. WAXMAN: Thank you for having me.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: On Saturday, there were two small explosions in Caracas, the capital of
    Venezuela.
    They happened while the president, Nicolas Maduro, was giving a speech to the country's
    National Guard.
    Two commercially available drones, reportedly carrying plastic explosives, blew up over
    a main boulevard.
    Maduro was quickly rushed off stage.
    And his military rushed off in panic.
    Local residents shot this video of soldiers running through the streets.
    "NewsHour" producer P.J. Tobia has more on that attack, why many Venezuelans are also
    running from their homeland, and what they're leaving behind.
    P.J. TOBIA: This is Venezuela's border with Brazil.
    Every day, hundreds cross this frontier, fleeing an economy in freefall, where inflation will
    soon hit 1 million percent.
    SOLIMAR MARQUEZ, Venezuela (through translator): we really don't have a future in Venezuela,
    and the salary one earns is not enough at all.
    The bolivar is worthless.
    P.J. TOBIA: The poorest make the crossing on foot.
    Some can't even feed their children, and rely on this Catholic-run shelter for a hot meal.
    Venezuela is mired in crisis.
    Oil production, the country's major source of cash, has plummeted.
    Armed guards stand sentry at supermarket entrances, where lines snake down the block.
    When shoppers are allowed in, it's a desperate frenzy to get basic commodities.
    MARIANO DE ALBA, Atlantic Council: So, the situation Venezuela is really dire, because
    you have a country that is in the midst of an economic crisis with hyperinflation.
    P.J. TOBIA: Mariano de Alba was born and studied law in Venezuela.
    He's now an analyst at the Atlantic Council.
    MARIANO DE ALBA: There is also a scarcity of food and medicine in the supermarkets.
    So what happens is, you have a country where the large majority of the population doesn't
    have sufficient means to live.
    P.J. TOBIA: The political situation isn't much better, with a fractured opposition under
    pressure from President Maduro, who was reelected in a controversial snap election this past
    May.
    Despite the government's claims, Alba isn't convinced that last weekend's drone incident
    was an assassination attempt.
    MARIANO DE ALBA: There are two possibilities.
    One, either the garment is telling the truth, and this was an assassination attempt, or,
    two, the government is lying, as is usual, and this was a play by the government to try
    to strengthen their hand within the country and also to try to alleviate the attention
    of the ongoing economic crisis.
    P.J. TOBIA: On Sunday, the government claimed that it had made some arrests related to the
    NESTOR REVEROL, Interior Ministry of Venezuela (through translator): We have so far six terrorists
    and hitmen detained, various vehicles confiscated.
    Various raids have been executed in the capital of our country, where important evidence has
    been collected of criminal activity.
    P.J. TOBIA: Maduro has suggested that the U.S. might have had some involvement in the
    attack, a charge the U.S. government denied.
    He also blamed Juan Manuel Santos, the outgoing president of neighboring Colombia.
    More than a million Venezuelans have fled there.
    Alba says, as long as the military sides with Maduro, he will retain power.
    But in a country once ruled by Hugo Chavez, who came to power in a coup, that's not a
    sure thing.
    MARIANO DE ALBA: The government cannot match the speed of hyperinflation to adjust the
    salaries of the members of the military.
    So -- and it is not only that the members of the military who are suffering this, but
    also their families.
    So, over the last, I would say, six months, we have seen credible reports in the press
    about growing discontent within the military.
    P.J. TOBIA: For average Venezuelans, that discontent is already acute.
    And they're voting with their feet.
    For the "PBS NewsHour," I'm P.J. Tobia.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: The era of terrorism that led to 9/11 began 20 years ago today.
    Al-Qaida bombs obliterated U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, 250 killed, 5,000 injured.
    Today in Nairobi, the rebuilt U.S. Embassy hosted a candlelight vigil.
    Since 9/11, al-Qaida has morphed into franchises, and the deadliest is in Yemen.
    The "NewsHour" has reported often from that country, most recently when special correspondent
    Jane Ferguson crossed the dangerous front line, from land controlled by a Sunni coalition
    led by Saudi Arabia to an area held by Shia Houthi rebels by smuggling herself in.
    And now there is a new story from the Associated Press about that front line, that Saudi Arabia,
    a U.S. ally, is supporting al-Qaida fighters in Yemen.
    Jane joins me now from Beirut.
    Jane Ferguson, thank you very much.
    The U.S., of course, is supporting Saudi, its ally, and supporting the Saudi-led coalition
    in Yemen.
    But Saudi is cutting deals, apparently, with al-Qaida.
    I mean, does this mean, ironically, that the U.S. and al-Qaida are on the same side?
    JANE FERGUSON: To a certain extent, Nick, it does, although I'm sure neither side would
    like to acknowledge that inconvenient fact that they're basically, essentially, fighting
    on the same side, to some extent.
    Now, there have been reports in the Arab media for some time now about a al-Qaida fighters
    showing up on the front lines in this war, but this is by far the most comprehensive
    report.
    And I can say that, when I was on the ground in Yemen and I showed any interest in going
    to these front lines, like going to the south and spending time trying to film the battles,
    I was told by Yemeni fixers and journalists there that I would have liked to have teamed
    up with and go that the main danger, their main concern wasn't just the fighting on the
    front line, which, of course, can be dangerous, but it was the presence of al-Qaida fighters
    there, the present of jihadi fighters.
    And, you know, discussions of this had been spreading throughout Yemen, and many Yemenis
    had been discussing this, that there had been jihadists that had moved into these areas.
    And this was of note to them because the al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula, this Yemeni branch
    of al-Qaida, had not been present in places like Taiz or all up the western coast, where
    these front lines are.
    So people were really quite alarmed that they were showing up.
    And they were never sure, if we went there, whether or not there could be a checkpoint
    all of a sudden that had been set up by al-Qaida itself.
    And, as a result, it makes that kind of reporting very difficult.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: It seems to lead to the question about the U.S. strategic aims here.
    The question, I guess, would be, are these deals that Saudi Arabia, again, a U.S. ally,
    is apparently cutting with al-Qaida, does it mean that al-Qaida is actually continuing
    or surviving inside of Yemen?
    JANE FERGUSON: It does.
    It gives them a chance -- any time that Al-Qaida fighters are given an opportunity to leave
    one area safely and live to fight another day, especially if they're allowed to leave
    with weapons and any kind of money or loot that they have gathered, it helps them thrive.
    If you're looking at strategic interests, it also serves the strategic interests of
    the Saudis and the UAE who are on the ground there, certainly the Emiratis on the ground
    there, that they don't have to use their own fighters to fight al-Qaida, and instead they
    potentially get the recruitment of many battle-hardened and extremely strong fighters from al-Qaida
    basically joining up with the various militias that they can then fight against the Houthis.
    And for the coalition, the real enemy here are the Houthis, the Iran-backed Shia militias
    in the north.
    For the United States, it's difficult to see a strategic benefit here.
    It's difficult to see why al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula being allowed to survive
    in those areas -- this is the franchise of al-Qaida that is considered by the United
    States to be the most deadly and the most determined to strike against the United States
    on its own soil -- that they would be allowed to thrive, move around the country.
    So it's difficult to see the U.S. strategic gain there.
    However, it is also perhaps a reflection of a pivot in U.S. strategy that is very much
    so focused on fighting Iran.
    And the United States, this White House, this Trump White House certainly sees the Houthis
    in the north that are backed by Iran, certainly allied with Iran, they see them very much
    so as a symbol of Iranian expansion.
    And, therefore, they see it as the United States' strategic interest to go after them.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: You know better than anyone that the fighting in Yemen continues.
    Tens of thousands have died.
    Much of the fighting is focused on Hodeidah.
    What's the situation in that key port city today?
    JANE FERGUSON: The situation is that the ground offensive that was launched back in June appears
    to have stopped, essentially, in terms of the coalition troops trying to enter the city.
    There have been ongoing airstrikes, however, and the aid agencies have continued to call
    for an end to those and to call for an end to the fighting.
    Let's not forget that this -- the reason that this city is so strategically important is
    because that is where the vast majority of Yemen's food is coming in to.
    Eight million people in Yemen are on the brink of famine.
    They are in pre-famine conditions, as the U.N. says.
    If the fighting does enter that city, and the port stops being able to bring in those
    food supplies, then Yemen could very easily tip into a massive famine.
    So, it's very important.
    It's an extremely delicate part of this war right now.
    The United Nations envoy, the special envoy to Yemen, Martin Griffiths, did announce recently
    that there are planned peace talks for next month in Geneva.
    But it's not clear yet whether there will be a full-scale cease-fire in order for those
    peace talks to take place.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: Jane, very quickly in the time we have left, just we have been talking about
    Saudi Arabia.
    There's a new spat between Saudi Arabia and a surprising, perhaps, other country, Canada.
    What can you tell us about that?
    JANE FERGUSON: It certainly is surprising, Nick.
    And it has surprised a lot of people, because it has exploded so quickly.
    On Friday, the Canadian government tweeted its concerns about the arrest, the recent
    arrest in Saudi Arabia of civil rights activists and women's rights activists, saying that
    they were concerned and called them -- called for their release.
    The Saudis responded very quickly by expelling the Canadian ambassador.
    And since then, we have also seen the implication -- or basically the sanctions have been put
    in place against Canada.
    So, this is a huge escalation in just a matter of days between the two countries.
    It's also a reflection of how sensitive the Saudis are at the moment to international
    criticism about human rights.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: Jane Ferguson, joining us from Beirut, thank you very much.
    JANE FERGUSON: Thank you.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: And stay with us.
    Coming up on the "NewsHour": tensions rising in Chicago after a deadly weekend; an unpublished
    Hemingway story made public; and young people bringing fresh produce to an urban food desert.
    Last February's shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School was just the latest example
    of a school shooting with prior concerns for the shooter's mental health.
    Some states have so-called red flag laws that allow a judge to temporarily remove a mentally
    ill person's access to guns.
    As John Ferrugia of Rocky Mountain PBS reports, it's not easy to balance the rights of the
    mentally ill with the need for public safety.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: Those who knew Matthew Riehl knew he was mentally ill, but never imagined
    him to be a killer.
    Last New Year's Eve in a Denver suburb, after he called 911 claiming that his roommate verbally
    assaulted him, Riehl spun out of control, barricaded himself in his room with guns,
    and was judged by deputies to be a threat to himself and to others.
    That is Colorado's standard for forcing involuntary mental health treatment.
    But when they tried to take him into custody:
    MAN: Open the door.
    Sheriff's office!
    (GUNFIRE)
    JOHN FERRUGIA: Hundreds of rounds were fired.
    One deputy, Zack Parrish, died.
    Four others were wounded, along with two civilians in the apartment complex where he was holed
    up.
    In a subsequent shoot-out with a SWAT team, Matthew Riehl also died, ending his long descent
    into mental illness.
    SUSAN RIEHL, Mother: He did very well in school.
    He graduated from C.U.
    Denver magna cum laude.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: After graduating, he moved to Wyoming, where he loved to hunt and fish,
    and he enrolled in law school.
    His future was bright.
    He had friends.
    He joined the National Guard as a medic, eventually deploying to Iraq.
    SUSAN RIEHL: Even after he came home, he always kept his medic bag in his car in case he needed
    to help anybody.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: But his mother, Susan Riehl, says Iraq changed him.
    His medical records show he exhibited PTSD and anxiety related to his service.
    SUSAN RIEHL: I don't think he was mentally ill until after he came back.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: In 2014, after he finished law school and was working in a private firm,
    Matthew Riehl had his first mental break.
    His mother found him secluded in his home believing the end of time was coming.
    She convinced him to go to a Veterans Affairs hospital in Wyoming for mental health treatment.
    And she removed several guns from his house for safekeeping.
    What were you concerned about?
    SUSAN RIEHL: Just that he could harm himself or others, or that it was probably not a good
    idea for somebody who was mentally ill to have guns.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: But he didn't stay long in VA treatment, first walking away, then checking
    himself out.
    And, soon after, he moved into the basement of his parents home in Colorado.
    Records provided by the family show that he was receiving private outpatient mental health
    treatment and was diagnosed with bipolar disorder, but wasn't suicidal or homicidal.
    Then, in early 2017, his mother says he stopped taking his medication.
    SUSAN RIEHL: He became more reclusive.
    He stopped eating meals with the family, and just wanted to be left alone.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: The family became concerned and a little scared by his erratic behavior,
    so they reached out to the local Lone Tree, Colorado, Police Department.
    SUSAN RIEHL: We were hoping they could offer us some assistance to get him help.
    They went to the house and tried to talk to him, and that was what precipitated him moving
    out.
    For a long time, we didn't know where he was.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: Afraid?
    SUSAN RIEHL: Afraid, concerned, but unable to do anything, because we had no ability
    to do anything to help him.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: Around the same time, Matthew also began sending bizarre and apparently
    threatening messages to his former law school professors at the University of Wyoming, and
    harassing the Lone Tree Police Department and city officials.
    That brought in the local sheriff's department.
    TONY SPURLOCK, Douglas County Sheriff: Through the process of conducting the investigation,
    we had our community response team, which is a mental health response team, attempt
    to engage him, with no success.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: Tony Spurlock is Douglas County sheriff.
    TONY SPURLOCK: We had a number contacts and interviews with him through the doors or via
    phone.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: But under Colorado law, the district attorney couldn't act because Riehl
    was not an imminent danger to himself or others, that is, a danger right now.
    In an e-mail, the DA told the sheriff's department: "We have to balance the suspect's First Amendment
    rights, especially given the wide latitude since we are public servants, with the Lone
    Tree police rights."
    So, police took precautions.
    SUSAN RIEHL: I know that the Lone Tree police had sent out a bulletin to all law enforcement
    around Colorado.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: That alert, noting Matthew's mental health and anger with law enforcement,
    could be seen by responding officers on their compute.
    That is why four Douglas County deputies, not just one, showed up on New Year's Eve,
    when Matthew Riehl called 911, because they knew he could be dangerous.
    While the Riehl family and the sheriff disagree on tactics used that night and whether breaking
    into his bedroom was necessary, they agree that the incident could have been prevented
    long before New Year's Eve.
    SUSAN RIEHL: He knew the law, and he never did anything to cross the line that would
    make it possible for us to get him help.
    TONY SPURLOCK: Well, I think if we were to adjust our statute, we would have been able
    to intervene much earlier and most likely would have been able to eliminate the situation
    on New Year's Eve from occurring.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: Spurlock is talking about what is known as a red flag law.
    Nine states have statutes allowing law enforcement or the family of a mentally ill person to
    petition a judge for involuntary mental health treatment based on a pattern of behavior,
    and to store guns for safekeeping, until the judge determines mental health is restored.
    MARA ELLIOTT, San Diego City Attorney: If there are sufficient warning signs, we can
    now get a gun violence restraining order.
    We don't have to wait for another crime to occur.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: Mara Elliott is city attorney of San Diego.
    In the first five months since the law went into effect in California in December 2017,
    there were 26 successful petitions in her city for involuntary treatment of mentally
    ill persons who were deemed to show a pattern of threat or concern who had access to guns.
    MARA ELLIOTT: It's a measure to keep that person safe, and people around that person
    safe, and allow them the opportunity to get help.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: And she says there are safeguards built in to protect the rights of the mentally
    ill, including a hearing within 21 days of the petition to the court.
    Neither police, the city attorney, nor the family makes the decision.
    MARA ELLIOTT: We need to prove to the satisfaction of a judge that there is a legitimate concern
    here that somebody is going to be a threat to themselves or to someone else.
    We're worried about lives here.
    So we have that burden of proof.
    On the flip side of it, the gun owner also has an opportunity to come to the court and
    tell their side of the story, to put their conduct into context.
    TONY SPURLOCK: We need that red flag law.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: You need a lower statutory threshold.
    TONY SPURLOCK: We need a change in the statute to save lives.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: According to the Colorado Department of Human Services, in 2017, more than 34,000
    persons in the state were deemed an imminent danger to themselves or others and placed
    on a 72-hour mental health hold and forced into a emergency treatment program.
    Over the decade, there has been an increase of more than 300 percent.
    ARLENE HOLMES, Mother: We don't fit people's picture of what the parents of a mass murderer
    is.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: Bob and Arlene Holmes are the parents of James Holmes, the Aurora, Colorado,
    theater shooter who in 2012 killed 12 people and wounded scores of others.
    ARLENE HOLMES: We have had people say to us we thought these mass murderers must come
    from abused homes, but we know you and you never abused.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: They have been working quietly with mental health groups and lobbying legislatures
    and Congress for more mental health funding.
    They have also worked to loosen federal privacy laws so that providers aren't afraid of being
    sued for talking to families about the care of their adult children.
    Arlene was horrified when she found out the psychiatrist who was treating James never
    told them their son was having homicidal thoughts or talking about killing a lot of people.
    He was an adult, entitled to his privacy by federal laws protecting medical information.
    Do you think, if you were given that information, do you think this would have happened?
    ARLENE HOLMES: God, if we could fly back there and ensure that he was hospitalized, who can
    say 100 percent that us could have prevented it, but we sure as hell would have tried.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: But they also blame themselves for their son's actions.
    ARLENE HOLMES: It's our fault for not being educated.
    If you're going to have a baby, you need to understand mental health.
    And you need to start looking for things and making sure that your kid has no mental health
    issues.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: State legislatures across the country, including Colorado, are wrestling
    with the nexus of mental illness and guns.
    Do you believe, if you had a red flag law prior to this incident, that both your deputy
    and Matthew Riehl might be alive today?
    TONY SPURLOCK: I do, because I think, if we had it, we would have taken him into custody
    when he was threatening the Lone Tree Police Department.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: Opponents of such a law voted down a measure in Colorado this year, with
    the help of the gun lobby, charging that the due process rights of the mentally ill whose
    guns could be temporarily removed would be violated and that the rights of all gun owners
    could be in jeopardy as they see red flag laws as a move toward broader gun control.
    But for the Republican sheriff whose deputies were killed and wounded, it is about public
    safety.
    TONY SPURLOCK: And if we had had it, we could have intervened then, and we could have done
    a lot of different things that we were not allowed to do based upon the law.
    JOHN FERRUGIA: In Colorado, proponents vow to reintroduce a new bill next year, warning
    that, in the interim, there is a continuing risk of more fatal shootings involving mentally
    ill persons who may be a threat to themselves or to others.
    For the "NewsHour," I'm John Ferrugia in Denver.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: In Chicago, starting at 6:00 p.m. on Friday until Sunday night, 66 people
    were shot.
    Twelve died.
    Over one three-hour window, one person was shot, on average, every six minutes.
    Violence in Chicago is not new, but behind those numbers are stories of the victims and
    their families.
    An aunt kisses the photo of he niece, 17-year-old Jahnae Patterson, killed by a gunshot on Sunday.
    A bicycle that 17-year-old Kenny Ivory was riding when he was shot in the abdomen.
    And the scene on Sunday outside Stroger Hospital.
    The youngest victim this weekend was 11, the oldest victim 62.
    For more on all this, we turn to two Chicago residents, Tamar Manasseh, a community activist
    and founder of Mothers and Men Against Senseless Killings, and Lance Williams, associate professor
    of urban affairs, Northeastern Illinois University.
    Thanks very much to you both.
    Lance Williams, let me start with you.
    A lot of this violence was centered around the West Side of Chicago, the South Side of
    Chicago.
    Why are we seeing this violence today focused in those neighborhoods?
    LANCE WILLIAMS, Northeastern Illinois University: Well, you're seeing the violence on the West
    Side and the South Sides of Chicago because, about 20 years ago, in the early 2000s, the
    city of Chicago implemented some very, very bad public policy.
    The most damaging of those policies was the policy of Renaissance 2010, when Chicago basically
    privatized, through charter schools, neighborhood public elementary and high schools.
    It became a serious problem, because many of the high schools and communities that had
    long traditions of street organizations caused young African-American males to be afraid
    to leave out of their communities, going to new schools throughout the city of Chicago.
    So, basically, from the early 2000s, too many young African-American males haven't been
    going to school, meaning that they don't have life prospects.
    They can't get jobs.
    They're self-medicated to deal with the stress in their community.
    And it's driving a lot of the violence.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: Tamar Manasseh, I want to show what you do.
    I want to show a photo of you working.
    Every day, you sit on the corner of 75th Street and South Stewart Avenue cooking dinner for
    neighborhood kids.
    What are you trying to do?
    TAMAR MANASSEH, Founder, Mothers and Men Against Senseless Killings: I'm trying to keep them
    alive.
    That's what I'm trying to do.
    And for the past four years, I have been successful with hot dogs and hamburgers and chicken and
    hugs and love, and consistency.
    That's what I have been doing.
    Nobody gets shot there.
    And it's not just about the kids.
    It's about the wellness of the entire community.
    So we not only feed children there.
    We feed adults as well.
    So we're feeding upwards of 150 people every night.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: Lance Williams, food, providing something kind of community feeling, is that
    some of the solutions?
    LANCE WILLIAMS: Oh, absolutely.
    And I think, you know, what Tamar doing is an incredible job.
    It would be great if she was given more resources to expand and ramp up the kind of environment
    -- see, this is the stress that is going on in the community that she's addressing directly.
    She is creating an environment where it's -- you know, the food and the love and the
    hugs and the kisses and the mothers out on the block actually reduce the stress for the
    young men in the community, which makes them less inclined to engage in violence.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: Tamar Manasseh, I want to ask about what the police chief and the mayor
    said this weekend.
    They mentioned that gangs were behind a lot of this violence.
    And they also said -- the police chief said that they need the community's help to catch
    the perpetrators.
    Does that sound like the right solution?
    TAMAR MANASSEH: Not at all.
    Not to me, it doesn't.
    April 10, Eddie Johnson gave a press conference where he touted technology as what had helped
    bring down the numbers of violent crime in Chicago.
    It was the shooting spotter, and it was all of this new technology that they employed,
    and that's what did it.
    I'm not just -- you know, I'm not the only organization that's out in the neighborhood.
    (INAUDIBLE) make a difference on the ground every day.
    It's not just me.
    There are 100 other organizations just like me who are out here every day in their own
    way making a contribution to making communities better.
    He not once mentioned them.
    He said it was the technology and it was extra policing and it was actual over-policing that
    made the difference.
    But now you need the community's help when you have so many of the resources that could
    be given to the community.
    Englewood will not have any public schools in the fall.
    And these kids that Professor Williams spoke of, they will have no options of a public
    high school in Englewood.
    But yet the police have all the resources.
    But you're looking to the community to help you, when you just said that the community
    wasn't a part of that, when it was technology that did it.
    And it's kind of like, the day after he made that statement, CPD got another $10 million
    donation, when, I mean, organizations like mine are struggling every day that have been
    shown to actually have results just to make sure people get fed, just to make sure that
    we can actually -- actually provide a safe place every day for the community to come
    and be a community, for neighbors to come and intermingle with neighbors and people
    to come and meet people and to become a community again.
    We have to actually, you know, beg and borrow to make that happen, when the police department,
    they have all of these resources.
    It's clearly not going to public schools.
    For every school you close, for every teacher that loses a job, that's one more of these
    thugs or gangbangers that are created.
    So, no, you can't lay this at the feet of the community right now.
    You have to lay this at the feet of the city and the CPD.
    When you remove resources, what do you expect?
    This is what you will get.
    CPD needs to tell us what happened.
    They need to tell us why this happened.
    They owe us answers.
    This isn't for the community to take care of.
    It's for the city to tell us why this is happening.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: Tamar Manasseh, Lance Williams, thank you very much to you both.
    LANCE WILLIAMS: Thank you.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: Now Jeffrey Brown has a look at a decades-old, but newly released short
    story by Ernest Hemingway.
    JEFFREY BROWN: August, 1944, French and Allied troops marched down the Champs Elysees, the
    City of Light liberated from Nazi occupiers.
    Embedded with the soldiers, a giant of American literature, Ernest Hemingway.
    Twelve years later, Hemingway would capture the mood and the moment in a short story that
    bears the hallmarks of his classic works.
    Now "A Room on the Garden Side" has been published for the first time, in the literary magazine
    "The Strand."
    Managing editor Andrew Gulli:
    ANDREW GULLI, Managing Editor, "The Strand": It starts with a bunch of soldiers and they're
    sitting in the Ritz Hotel, and they're drinking.
    And you could tell that they have gone through a stressful experience because they have just
    marched into Paris after Paris was liberated from the Nazis.
    So you see there's all this laughter of men who had fought at battle and in essence relieving
    stress.
    But then there's also beneath that some sadness and some pathos for the men who didn't make
    it.
    JEFFREY BROWN: It was in 1956 that Hemingway sent word to his publisher of five new short
    stories he'd written: "I suppose they are a little shocking since they deal with irregular
    troops in combat and with people who actually kill people.
    Anyway, you can always publish them after I'm dead."
    The story set unpublished, though known to scholars.
    Hemingway committed suicide five years later, in 1961.
    ANDREW GULLI: If this manuscript was just submitted to me as is, I probably would have
    published it, because it was just -- it had a lot of typical themes of an Ernest Hemingway
    story.
    There is the theme of war, the theme of bravery, the theme of mortality, nostalgia for a time
    that has gone by.
    JEFFREY BROWN: The nostalgia dates all the way back to Hemingway's life as a young man
    in Paris in the 1920s, a heyday when he socialized with writers and artists, like Gertrude Stein,
    James Joyce, and Pablo Picasso.
    His memoir, "A Moveable Feast," published posthumously, captures that period.
    The newly published story takes place in the Ritz Hotel, one of Hemingway's frequent haunts.
    The hotel's bar is now named after its most famous patron.
    Kirk Curnutt is a board member of the Hemingway Foundation and Society.
    KIRK CURNUTT, Hemingway Foundation and Society: Paris was absolutely crucial to his artistic
    sense of himself.
    That was the place where he found his voice.
    I think he always looked at the liberation of Paris in 1944 as asking himself, what would
    have happened had Paris been permanently lost to the Nazis?
    So it's a very personal question for him.
    And I think, at the end of the life, as he's going back over those early years and calculating
    the loss of aging and the loss of his first wife, he's really identifying in that period
    with the city itself.
    JEFFREY BROWN: Hemingway's life and adventures often inspired his works.
    His time as a young ambulance driver on the Italian front in World War I figured in his
    first novel, "A Farewell to Arms."
    He captured his experience as an expat in Europe in "The Sun Also Rises," and during
    the Spanish Civil War in "For Whom the Bell Tolls."
    By the time he wrote "A Room on the Garden Side" in 1956, Hemingway was world famous,
    but sinking into a deep depression.
    KIRK CURNUTT: He was really struggling at this moment in his career.
    He had been through two plane crashes in two consecutive days a couple of years earlier.
    He was struggling to finish several large, voluminous projects.
    And so I think he was in Paris about this time.
    And what's interesting to me is, he was really writing the story around the same time he
    began writing "A Moveable Feast," so it's inexorably connected with what most people
    consider one of his two or three greatest works.
    JEFFREY BROWN: Hemingway's short story is just the latest lost work to be excavated
    by "The Strand," which previously published unseen pieces by writers like John Steinbeck,
    F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Robert Louis Stevenson.
    Andrew Gulli, is it the fun of it?
    Is there something more that we learn about these authors?
    ANDREW GULLI: I would say it's partly the fun of it.
    Ever since I was a kid, I was the kid who was bothering my mom, saying, hey, mom, wouldn't
    it be great if Robert Louis Stevenson was alive, and I could be discussing "Treasure
    Island" with him?
    So, to me, I love to have that bridge between the past and the present with these writers.
    And it's a nice thing to have a writer who was a very talented writer, to have some contemporary
    readers today try to compare their experience reading their work today to how they felt
    when they're reading it, let's say, in high school or 30 years ago.
    JEFFREY BROWN: For the "PBS NewsHour," I'm Jeffrey Brown.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: In many urban areas across the country, there are food deserts, areas
    with a lack of access to fresh fruits and vegetables.
    But, as Maryland and Washington, D.C., teams from our Student Reporting Labs noticed, a
    cooperative of high school students in D.C. is aiming to change that.
    It's part of our weekly education series, Making the Grade.
    And it's reported by 18 year old Kevin Broome.
    KEVIN BROOME: These students are learning how to grow vegetables and other edible plants.
    Rasha Rida is a 12th grader at Eastern Senior High School.
    RASHA RIDA, Student: So, one day, I was just going to soccer practice.
    I was just walking by the greenhouse.
    And I was like, oh, my God.
    What is that beautiful, magnificent thing greenhouse over there?
    And the sun was just radiating.
    It was just like, ahhh.
    (LAUGHTER)
    RASHA RIDA: And so, basically, I just peeked my head in the door and I was like, so, what
    is this?
    And they were like, this is mighty greens.
    KEVIN BROOME: Mighty Greens is a youth-led cooperative whose mission is to improve Washington,
    D.C.'s access to healthy food and food education.
    RASHA RIDA: D.C. is a food desert.
    So that basically means that people in D.C. have a hard time having access to food, whether
    it's a grocery store not being close enough to them or transportation to that grocery
    store.
    KEVIN BROOME: According to D.C.
    Hunger Solutions, every day in the district of Columbia, nearly one out of seven households
    struggles to buy nutritionally adequate and safe food.
    Kameela Owens is an 11th grader at Eastern Senior High School.
    KAMEELA OWENS, Student: I help people in my community learn how to grow vegetables or
    even learn how to eat healthy with the vegetables.
    One day, maybe our city could not be a food desert.
    Malka Roth is an educator for City Blossoms, a D.C.-based nonprofit organization that helps
    Mighty Greens operate.
    MALKA ROTH, City Blossoms: It's really about creating a space where students can connect
    with themselves, with each other, and with the world around them.
    KEVIN BROOME: Last year, Mighty Greens harvested over 1200 pounds of food and is hoping to
    surpass that this year.
    MALKA ROTH: About 50 percent of our produce gets sold.
    About 25 percent gets donated to our partners, and then 25 percent gets taken home by students
    or used for on-site recipes.
    It's really important within this work that the students know that they're growing food
    for themselves.
    KEVIN BROOME: Students also develop entrepreneurial skills by creating products and selling them
    at farmer's markets.
    KAMEELA OWENS: We have two herb salts.
    One's called herbs of eastern, which has kosher salt, thyme, oregano, and rosemary.
    We make it by dehydrating all the herbs we get out the garden and then mixing it with
    salt, equal parts each.
    The customers are like, oh, this is really cool.
    And you're like, oh, my gosh, that's really good.
    You feel really good about it.
    KEVIN BROOME: This program equips students with critical life skills and gives them confidence
    beyond the classroom.
    KAMEELA OWENS: People in high school, if they had like a program where they could go to
    and learn how to do a business, they would be able to understand those things that you
    don't learn in school.
    I feel like, if I didn't join this, I wouldn't be the person I am today.
    KEVIN BROOME: For the "PBS NewsHour" Student Reporting Labs, I'm Kevin Broome in Washington,
    D.C.
    NICK SCHIFRIN: Later tonight on PBS, "Frontline" and ProPublica present a film about the deadly
    Charlottesville, Virginia, rally that occurred nearly one year ago.
    "Documenting Hate: Charlottesville" investigates the white supremacists and neo-Nazis involved
    in the rally, and it shows how some of those behind the racist violence went unpunished
    and continue to operate around the country.
    "Frontline" airs tonight on most PBS stations.
    On the "NewsHour" online right now: As emergency crews battle active wildfires, there are ways
    you can help.
    We have a list of organizations, in English and Spanish, on our Web site, PBS.org/NewsHour.
    And that's the "NewsHour" for tonight.
    I'm Nick Schifrin.
    Join us online and again here tomorrow evening.
    For all of us at the "PBS NewsHour," I hope you had a good day.
    Thank you, and see you soon.
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